The manufacturer and customer needn't bother negotiating the wording for those responsibilities. A requirement like this can be handy if the Receiving Party will be dealing with information whose distribution is restricted by law, for example personal health information or export-controlled information. The obligations of section 6.1.3 apply only during the Confidentiality-Obligation Period; during that time, though, those obligations will continue to apply to all Specimens of Confidential Information, even after any termination or expiration of the Agreement. of Confidential Information is any copy of, and any physical object embodying, Confidential Information — for example, any paper- or electronic copy and any specimen of hardware — where the copy or physical object is in the possession, custody, or control of: (i) the Receiving Party, and/or (ii) any individual or organization to which the Receiving Party made Confidential Information accessible.Instead, they likely will "order from the menu" of the INCOTERMS 2010 publication: By specifying a standardized three-letter abbreviation — DDP, EXW, or whatever — the parties can quickly signal which of that publication's pre-defined terms and conditions they wish to use. This provision uses a prudent-measures standard instead of an absolute obligation. Disclosing parties will normally be reluctant to agree to a fixed confidentiality period. (b) IF: The Disclosing Party makes a seasonable written request following any termination or expiration of the Agreement; THEN: except as provided in sections 126.96.36.199 and (if applicable) 6.2.22, the Receiving Party will promptly: (1) return Specimens of Confidential Information to (i) the Disclosing Party, or (ii) another individual or organization designated in writing by the Disclosing Party; and (2) subject to section 188.8.131.52 (if applicable), destroy any Specimens not returned.IPRs are now a key element in the generation of wealth and the continuing development of the world economy.The massive increase in international business resultant from the information revolution, at the same time, has led to a blurring of geographical boundaries.Interest in the corporate governance practices of modern corporations, particularly in relation to accountability, increased following the high-profile collapses of a number of large corporations during 2001–2002, most of which involved accounting fraud; and then again after the recent financial crisis in 2008. In contemporary business corporations, the main external stakeholder groups are shareholders, debtholders, trade creditors and suppliers, customers, and communities affected by the corporation's activities.Corporate scandals of various forms have maintained public and political interest in the regulation of corporate governance. Internal stakeholders are the board of directors, executives, and other employees.Also includes links to selected real-world contract forms. The INCOTERMS® are "a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) [that are] widely used in international commercial transactions …. the purpose of corroboration [is] to prevent fraud, by providing independent confirmation of the [witness's] testimony." See Sandt Technology, Ltd. Resco Metal & Plastics Corp., 264 F.3d 1344, 1350 (Fed. 2001) (affirming relevant part of summary judgment; internal quotation marks and citation omitted). (b) Except as otherwise stated below, for information to be considered Confidential Information, the information must: (1) be set forth (or summarized) in tangible form (including for example an electronic storage device); and (2) be marked with a reasonably-prominent, visually-readable notice such as (for example) "Confidential information of [name]" or "Subject to NDA." In assessing whether a disclosing party in fact maintained particular information in confidence, a court very likely will give significant weight to whether the disclosing party caused the information to be marked as confidential. In many situations, these "standard" precautions are likely to satisfy the disclosing party's desires, but for some types of Confidential Information, a disclosing party might want to insist on special precautions — especially in the era of criminal hackers, and even state actors, breaking into insufficiently-secure computer systems and stealing valuable information, such as happened to Sony Pictures Entertainment, allegedly at the hands of North Korea, and to Home Depot, which booked a charge of 1 million after a 2014 theft of customers' credit-card data. (1) will not waive or otherwise affect the Disclosing Party's ability to enforce its other intellectual-property rights (for example, copyrights and patents) against the Receiving Party except to the extent, if any, that the parties expressly agree otherwise in writing; and (2) will not affect any obligation of confidentiality imposed by law.
In large firms where there is a separation of ownership and management and no controlling shareholder, the principal–agent issue arises between upper-management (the "agent") which may have very different interests, and by definition considerably more information, than shareholders (the "principals").The primary type of compensation, of course, is cash, which comes in the form of hourly wages, contract income, salaries, bonuses, matching retirement plan contributions, and lifetime payouts from defined benefit plans.The second method of compensation comes in the form of benefits, such as insurance (life, health, dental, and disability), paid vacations and sick days, tuition and child care assistance, and other miscellaneous perks, such as company cars and expense accounts.The danger arises that, rather than overseeing management on behalf of shareholders, the board of directors may become insulated from shareholders and beholden to management.An important theme of governance is the nature and extent of corporate accountability.In the same vein, to save time, contract drafters (and reviewers) can consider incorporating selected Common Draft sections, or even entire contract drafts, by reference and specifying any desired variations or modifications — this could be thought of as "drafting by exception" or even as like INCOTERMS on steroids.* * For clarity: The Common Draft project is not sponsored, endorsed by, or otherwise associated with the International Chamber of Commerce, which produces the INCOTERMS® 2010 rules. That's because doing so can result in destruction of the disclosing party's trade-secret rights in its confidential information after the end of the confidentiality period. An obligation to return or destroy Confidential Information might not be practical if (for example) Confidential Information is embodied in a deliverable (for example, custom-developed computer software, or a physical object) that the receiving party will have the right to keep on using; this might be the case in a services agreement.