The female age group at highest risk for domestic violence victimization is 16 to 24. Among one segment of this high-risk age group—undergraduate college students—22 percent of female respondents in a Canadian study reported domestic violence victimization, and 14 percent of male respondents reported physically assaulting their dating partners in the year before the survey. And although the victimization of teen girls is estimated to be high, it is difficult to “…untangle defensive responses from acts of initial violence against a dating partner.” Although domestic violence occurs across income brackets, it is most frequently reported by the poor who more often rely on the police for dispute resolution.Victimization surveys indicate that lower-income women are, in fact, more frequently victims of domestic violence than wealthier women.These inequalities can increase women’s and girls’ risks of abuse, violent relationships and exploitation, for example, due to economic dependency and limited survival and income-earning options, or discrimination under the law as it relates to marriage, divorce, and child custody rights.Violence against women and girls is not only a consequence of gender inequality, but reinforces women’s low status in society and the multiple disparities between women and men.
Also, although some risk factors are stronger than others, it is difficult to compare risk factor findings across studies because of methodological differences between studies.(UN General Assembly, 2006) A variety of factors at the individual, relationship, community and society (including the institutional/state) levels intersect to increase the risk of violence for women and girls.These factors, represented in the ecological model, include: Additional risk factors related to intimate partner violence that have been identified in the context of the United States include: young age; poor mental health levels related to low self-esteem, anger, depression, emotional insecurity or dependence, antisocial or borderline personality traits and social isolation; history of physical discipline as a child; marital instability and separation or divorce; history of perpetrating psychological abuse; unhealthy family relationships; poverty-related issues such as overcrowding or economic stress; and low levels of community intervention or sanctions against domestic violence.Expressive aggression is when your intimate partner has called you names (e.g., fat, ugly, crazy, stupid) insulted, humiliated or made fun of you called you a loser, a failure or not good enough told you no one else would want you acted very angry in a way that seemed dangerous.Coercive control is when your intimate partner has tried to keep you from seeing or talking to family or friends made decisions that should have been yours to make kept track of you by demanding to know where you were and what you were doing made threats to physically harm you threatened to hurt him/herself or commit suicide because s/he was upset threatened to hurt a pet or take a pet away threatened to hurt someone you love threatened to take your children away from you kept you from leaving the house when you wanted to go kept you from having your own money to use destroyed something that was important to you.It is likely that some victims of domestic violence experience physical assault only once and others experience it repeatedly over a period as short as 12 months. British research suggests that the highest risk period for further assault is within the first four weeks of the last assault. Offenders convicted of domestic violence account for about 25 percent of violent offenders in local jails and 7 percent of violent offenders in state prisons. Many of those convicted of domestic violence have a prior conviction history: more than 70 percent of offenders in jail for domestic violence have prior convictions for other crimes, not necessarily domestic violence. Although there is a popular conception that the risk of domestic violence increases when a couple separates, in fact, most assaults occur during a relationship rather than after it is over. However, still unknown is whether the severity (as opposed to the frequency) of violence increases once a battered woman leaves.